The Tunguska SPAAU was designed in the 70s of the 20th century to provide detection, IFF identification, and kill of airplanes, helicopters (including hovering and suddenly appearing ones) and low-flying targets while in move, in halt, and in short stops. The Tunguska provides kill of ground, water surface, and parachuted targets.Many years of experience of operation of the Tunguska SPAAU versions 2C6, 2C6M have revealed that the systems have insufficient jamming immunity while in launch of missiles against targets equipped with optical jamming equipment. In addition, the systems do not have equipment for automated receipt and process of target designations from the High Level Command Post (HLCP) thus decreasing efficiency of combat use of SPAAU battery in case of enemy massed air raid.

The Tunguska-M1 SPAAU obtained some technical updates that have allowed expanding its capabilities. A new missile with a pulse optical transponder has been introduced and missile control equipment has been upgraded. These upgrades have considerably enhanced immunity against optical jamming and increased the probability of kill of targets sheltered with such jamming.Missile equipping with a radar proximity fuse has significantly increased SPAAU efficiency while in engaging small-sized targets. Increase of operation time of missile components resulted in raising the missile kill range from 8000 to 10000 m.

Equipment for automated reception and processing of external target designation has been introduced; it integrates via a radio channel with a battery command post.  The equipment allows automatic distribution of targets from the battery command post to battery SPAAUs (each battery consists of 6 SPAAUs) thus increasing essentially the efficiency of combat use of a Tunguska battery against a massed air raid. Simultaneously the command post receives information of SPAAU actions against its target.The gunner “load relief” system has been introduced;  it provides automated, speedy, 2-D target tracking with use of the optical sight thus allowing significant simplification of the process of target tracking by the gunner, at the same time increasing the tracking accuracy and decreasing dependence of effectiveness of use of missiles on gunner’s professional skill level.The TV and thermal imaging channels with auto-tracking line have been introduced, the upgrade allows realizing the passive mode of target tracking and round-the-clock use of missile armament.

A new computer is used in the updated computing system; it has better speed and larger memory and allows increasing the velocity of task solving and decreasing crew’s errors.The radar equipment has passed upgrading aimed at provision of receipt and process of external target designation, of gunner “load relief” system operation; equipment reliability has increased, technical and operational characteristics have improved. Target detection zone in altitude has increased to 6000 m (instead of 3500 m) to allow increasing target engagement zone in altitude to 6000 m.Some other subsystems have been updated with purpose to improve performance and operational characteristics of SPAAU.

THE UPDATED SHILKA SELF-PROPPELLED ANTI-AIRCRAFT UNIT  The 23-mm quad-gun anti-aircraft unit Shilka is a short-range air defense system providing air defense for combat orders of troops and columns in march; for stationary objects and special trains against enemy air attacks from altitudes up to 1500 m and range up to 2500 m. It may be used for engagement of ground and water surface targets at distances up to 2000 m and against parachuted targets.Having passed combat check in different regions of the world, even now it has high firing power and tactical mobility comparable with nowadays criteria in its class of anti-aircraft systems; at that, it easily integrates into organizational and command structures, it has well-established and ramified structure of repair and personnel training.Improvement of means and methods of enemy air attacks for the last 10-15 years and their equipping with modern weaponry as well as limitations in delivery of SPTA kits stipulated by finish of production of many components caused the necessity of Shilka updating.

The Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant has realized activities to update the Shilka anti-aircraft unit. The updated anti-aircraft unit has better performance characteristics in comparison with previous versions.More advanced fire control system has been developed and implemented: 

-Equipment for receipt and transmission of data for exchange with HLCP has been introduced;

- The procedure of processing the secondary data has been converted from analogue to digital one

-The radar has been replaced with a new one of the same frequency band. All the equipment (except the transmitter) has been converted to a solid-state component base. The jamming protection system and range finder have been converted to digital data processing.

- A quick-acting, larger memory digital computing system has been introduced instead of analogue computing instrument, gun and sight converters. The computing system is based on a modern digital computer of series production. 

- The built-in simulator mode provides capability of efficient training of radar operators without use of aviation. 

- Introducing the equipment that allows launching SAM of Igla type has increased the range of target engagement to 5 km.

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